Palestinian reconciliation under Algerian auspices
Mostafa Ahmed Makled
Recently . Algeria has carried out an intense diplomatic activity. It seeks to play a greater regional role, especially after gaining more confidence after it achieved influence in the gas file, as it became an important source for supplying gas to Europe. The Algerian diplomatic activity appears in an attempt to make the next Arab summit successful, which will be hosted by Algiers in November of this year. In addition to playing a role at the Arab level that aims to arrange Syria’s return to the Arab League, and at the top and priorities of Algerian diplomatic moves is the file of “Palestinian reconciliation”.
Conditions surrounding the reconciliation:
The Algerian president has started an initiative to end the division between the “Fatah” and “Hamas” movements. He was Commissioned by the League of Arab States, provided that a final solution is reached before the Arab summit next November, which will discuss the Palestinian situation. Algeria’s moves come with Israel’s aggressions in the West Bank and the complete American bias towards it. And the absence of any international initiative to resolve the Palestinian-Israeli conflict with the decline in the seriousness of talk about the two-state solution.
In addition to several regional variables that may represent challenges to the reality of achieving reconciliation, Hamas has begun to adopt policies that contribute to strengthening its position and consolidating its regional relations. This may make the reconciliation file not a priority because the file requires waiving some of its gains.
Recently, the relations between “Hamas” and the Syrian regime, which included it with political and military support before the Syrian crisis, have returned. This means Hamas is treading towards the Iranian axis.
On the other hand, Hamas is moving on a contradictory chord, which is improving relations with Israel on the basis of “economy for the security” with the aim of improving living conditions in the Gaza Strip.
Algeria's plan to complete reconciliation:
Algeria presented its ideas through which it seeks to reduce the gap between the two movements of Fatah and Hamas, but they requested Amendments consistent with the vision of each party, as “Fatah” insists on forming a national unity government that is committed to recognizing Israel and recognizing the resolutions of international legitimacy before holding elections and forming a new National Council, while “Hamas” demands the reform of the Palestine Liberation Organization and disavowing security coordination with Tel Aviv, which is rejected by “Fatah” considering that the joining of the Islamic Jihad and Hamas movements to the PLO becomes automatic after ending the division.
In the end, Algeria itself drafted the reconciliation agreement that the two sides signed on October 13, and the agreement includes nine articles that stress the importance of national unity as a basis for Discussions , and resistance to occupation to achieve the legitimate goals of the Palestinian people, in addition to adopting the language of dialogue for consultation to resolve differences on the Palestinian arena, with the aim of The joining of the patriotic people to the Palestine Liberation Organization, as it is the legitimate and sole representative of the Palestinian people, in addition to consecrating the principle of political partnership between the various Palestinian national forces, in addition to expediting the holding of general presidential and legislative elections in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, including within a maximum period of one year, from The date of signing this declaration.
Articles were drawn up indicating the need to unify the Palestinian national institutions, mobilize the energies and available resources necessary to implement reconstruction projects and support the infrastructure and social for the Palestinian people, in parallel with activating the mechanism of the secretaries-general of the Palestinian factions, as a mechanism to end the division and achieve national unity and national political partnership.
Algeria has set up a mechanism consisting of an Algerian-Arab working group that works to supervise and follow up the implementation of the terms of the agreement, in cooperation with the Palestinian side, and its leadership belongs to Algeria.
Algeria’s declaration of Palestinian reconciliation received regional and international welcome, as it is an main step for arranging the Palestinian house and therefore represents a necessity to prepare for the resumption of peace talks between the Palestinian and Israeli sides. However, upon scrutiny and scrutiny, there are doubts about the success of this agreement, as the agreement came in the form of principles trying to establish a new partnership between Fatah and Hamas.
But the drafting of the agreement missed any support for these principles with realistic and specific steps that translate what was agreed upon into a lived reality. The absence of these executive mechanisms opens the door to repudiation of the agreement in light of the absence of regional parties capable of practical pressure on Fatah and Hamas to abide by the terms of the agreement. Especially in light of the predominance of the factional view of the two movements and the lack of agreement on the authority of the government to be formed after the elections.
The demand to form a national government had already taken place in 2017, but it was not successful, even though it worked in Gaza and received many of the tasks entrusted to it at the time, but it failed in the end. Regarding this time, the agreement did not clarify how a national unity government would be formed, as there was no text dedicated to forming a national unity government because of the disagreement over the adoption of the concept of international legitimacy, and this is considered an obstacle to the implementation of the agreement.
But it seems that there is an intention to go to Egypt, as it is able to take over the supervision of the implementation of this file if the “Fatah” and “Hamas” movements agree on the need to go to this matter, which will suspend the success of the agreement on the seriousness of the Hamas and Fatah movements in completing reconciliation, which is the subject of Doubt.
Arab interest in completing reconciliation:
Representatives of Qatar and Oman participated in the Palestinian reconciliation talks in Algeria. Wasel Abu Youssef, a member of the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization, said that Algeria and Egypt coordinated and sponsored the Palestinian reconciliation to ensure the success of reaching an agreement before the Arab summit scheduled to be held in November in Algeria. On October 5, the Sultanate of Oman and the Kingdom of Jordan issued a joint statement in which they stressed the need to reach a just solution to the Palestinian issue and their keenness to protect Christian and Islamic sanctities.
This interest reflects the Arab tendency, which considers that achieving reconciliation is the first step to adopting a unified policy towards Israel that achieves the aspirations of the Palestinian people, who have lost confidence in the resistance within a factional framework that leads to more division and a power struggle, where Hamas prefers military operations while Fatah pursues the diplomatic path. Especially after Israel’s expansion of security operations against the Palestinians in the West Bank.
The Arab approach aims to prevent the Palestinian cause from turning into a file used by non-Arab regional powers to achieve their interests, especially in the absence of international interest in the Palestinian cause and directing attention to the Ukrainian war.
In conclusion, over the past 15 years, all reconciliation efforts have failed, and Algeria is trying to achieve the agreement achieved in the presence of 14 Palestinian factions, in coordination with Egypt, which has had a long history in that file. The Arab interest is important to give a push forward to implement what was agreed upon, despite the challenges and obstacles that faced Facing agreement. But it seems that Mahmoud Abbas’ visit to Kazakhstan during the “cICA” summit and talks with Putin about re-launching new peace talks with Israel, in addition to delegating limited powers to the “Fatah movement” delegation in the reconciliation negotiations, in addition to Hamas’ refusal to stop the approach of military operations and adopt the negotiating approach with Israel, as one of Fatah’s demands to achieve reconciliation, all of this indicates the difficulty of anticipating the success of the agreement.