BY: Hana Ashraf El-Hessy

:Introduction

Climate change and particularly global warming is one of the most urgent global crisis, and the effects of the climate change are fast becoming more severe, and their consequences are more visible around the world, so this field of interest has become of interest to many Arab countries

Due to the harsh climate in the UAE in terms of high temperatures and water scarcity, it views climate change as a challenge that  need to be confronted through the big efforts and cooperation with the international community, the UAE support the conference of parties (Cop) through the attendance of the president of cop 28 Dr Sultan Al Jaber eleven precious conferences of the parties , and AL Jaber headed the country’s delegation to the Cop 21 conference ,  UAE is considered the first country in the Arabian Gulf region will host the conference of parties (cop28) from November 30 to December 12, 2023 in Expo city Dubai ,bringing together parties to the united nations framework convention on climate change , and it will unite global efforts to find effective, practical and ambitious solutions to solve the climate challenges,  this conference is very important because it will move from focusing on negotiations to finding practical solutions to reduce climate change ,and also to achieve sustainable development goal

The conference of parties (Cop) is the main decision-making body in the United Nations framework convention on climate change, it brings together the 197 countries that signed the agreement in 1994, while the first COP meeting was held in 1995

And as for the twenty-eight version of the conference, His Highness Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, President of the UAE has invited Heads of State or Government to participate in the Summit (WCAS), which will be held on Friday, 1 and Saturday, 2 December 2023, when the first part of the high-level segment for Heads of State or Government will also take place

And from this point, we will clarify the research question of this paper

“? How will the UAE host the COP 28 this year” 

:The UAE’s role in climate action

United Arab Emirates is one of the most countries most concerned with climate change, the UAE “is classified among the categories of countries most vulnerable to the potential impacts of climate change in the world.” , and being a traditional energy producing country poses a challenge to it in managing the transition towards clean and renewable energy efficiently, the UAE is considered advanced in the Gulf in its orientation towards clean and renewable energy, and it sees addressing this challenge as a great opportunity for it and for the region, and for the reason Within the framework of the UAE Vision 2021, the UAE Green Development Strategy was launched under the slogan “Green Economy for Sustainable Development” in January 2012, as part of the country’s endeavors to be a global center and a successful model for sustainable development, In January 2015, the UAE Cabinet approved the executive plan, the UAE Green Agenda (2015-2030)

UAE established a strategic initiative to achieve climate neutrality 2050, this initiative represents a national drive that aims to achieve climate neutrality, so the UAE is considered the first country in the Middle East and North Africa announce its goal to achieve climate neutrality, and established the national agenda for the UAE vision 2021 to ensure the sustainable development of the environment , and also launched the national climate change plan 2017-2050 which represent a roadmap to support national activities and initiatives aims to confronting climate challenges

UAE as a speaker in the field of climate action, it was the first country in the East speak directly to Paris and ratify it, the first country commit to reducing emissions at the intelligence level, Today the UAE is one of the world’s largest investors in clean energy projects, and has invested $50 billion in more than 70 countries, including 31 developing island countries that are most vulnerable to the repercussions of climate change ,these investments include the Zravshan wind farm in Uzbekistan ,which will supply half a million homes with electricity and contribute to avoiding the emission of more than 11 tons of carbon dioxide annually, these achievements are in line with he UAE’s efforts to achieve the sustainable development goals including goal 13 which is to take urgent action to address climate change and its impacts

Mentioning these initiatives alone is not enough to illustrate the true depth of climate action efforts in the UAE, so the UAE cooperates with the sisterly Arab Republic of Egypt and the international community in the COP27 conference, and it is already preparing for the COP28 conference, hoping to be able to align global ambition with action, to achieve greater progress on climate action

:what’s new in cop 28 compared to others

The Conference of the Parties (cop28) will begin its work with the Global Climate Action Summit, which will be held for two days, during which the Presidency of the Conference of the Parties will present the first response to the results of the global inventory to the world’s presidents to obtain their approval of the necessary pledges and ensure the implementation of the principle of supervision and follow-up, COP28 dedicates a day to health, relief, recovery and peace for the first time. It will also be the first conference focus on the role of trade and finance as well, and will bring together leaders from all levels of government and society to discuss ways to enhance joint cooperation to build sustainable, safer and environmentally friendly cities for current and future generations

All conference activities, will establish an approach that consider the needs of communities most vulnerable to climate repercussions, and focuses on ways to achieve progress using innovative financing and technological solutions

:COP 28 strategy and goals

The UAE is preparing to receive more than 70,000 participants in the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP28), in Expo City Dubai, including heads of state, government officials, international leaders from industry and private sector representatives, as well as academics and experts, youth and non-governmental bodies to discuss the issue of climate change and review innovative solutions that support multilateral cooperation and climate diplomacy

:The conference’s goals

The importance of maintaining the goal of reaching 1.5 degrees Celsius-

Providing an active, fully operational fund to compensate poor countries affected by climate change-

Find a renewable energy and double hydrogen production by 2030-

Phasing out the Fossil fuels is inevitable and necessary and eliminate all emissions-

Rich countries must fulfill their commitment to provide annual climate financing worth 100$ billion00-

:This conference aims to support the achievement of the Two pillars of the conference action plan, which are

Accelerating the achievement of an orderly just and responsible transition in the energy sector-

Developing climate financing mechanisms, focusing on preserving people and life and improving livelihoods-

:COP28 Areas

:Blue zone

The Blue Zone hosts formal negotiations over the two weeks of the conference, as well as the global climate action summit, country pavilions, presidency events, and hundreds of side events including panel discussions, roundtables, and cultural events ,only accredited participants of the UNFCCC such as parties, world presidents, media and observers will be able to access the Blue Zone

:Green zone

As for the Green Zone hosts to delegations and guests of the Blue Zone, the public and private sectors, non-governmental organizations, and the general public, the Green Zone is located in Expo City Dubai, next to the Blue Zone, and the Green Zone will be operated between Thursday, November 30 and Tuesday, December 12, 2023

:Cop28 is an opportunity to solve the climate change

The phenomenon of climate change is causing coastal erosion, beach erosion, and sea level rise due to rising temperatures and melting ice, which leads to great concern for fear of the disappearance of many coastal cities.

 “COP28” will create solutions to this serious problem, through the conference plan aimed at avoiding a rise in the temperature of the planet to more than 1.5 degrees Celsius, the problem of erosion of beaches and rising sea levels, through achieving the “Paris Climate Agreement,” which demanded that the Earth’s temperature not exceed 1.5 degrees Celsius, so that the average sea level rise is reduced from 9.8 inches (25 cm) to 5.1 inches (13 cm), and thus the seas do not rise in a way that represents a major danger, For this to be implemented, the major industrialized countries must commit to reducing emissions, and  rich countries must help developing and poor countries adapt and mitigate the risks caused by the construction of dams and barriers and the increase in emissions due to the use of fossil fuels in industries

In order for the world to confront climate change and the resulting problem of coastal erosion, dependence on fossil energy must be stopped, and we must turn to new and renewable energy to reduce carbon emissions and greenhouse gases, pointing out that the UAE is a promising and pioneering country in this field, and is working to use green hydrogen, solar and new energy

The UAE has an opportunity to be a bridge between the countries and its role is very important in energy, climate and global economic issues and the UAE has the credibility to solve the complexities of these issues especially with AL Jaber (the president of the conference) has an extensive background in the energy field and can work to bring together various energy leaders to work together for a successful renewable energy transition and plan,

“COP 28” is a real opportunity also to activate the financing mechanism of the Green Fund or the Climate Fund to provide $100 billion every year to confront the risks of climate change, including the erosion of beaches and sea level rise

:Conclusion

It is clear from the initial statements that the goals of the United Arab Emirates for the upcoming climate summit are ambitious and seek to find agreement on clear commitments to reduce carbon emissions by 2030,so what was stated in the statement of the President-designate of the Cop28 Conference is that, by working with the Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change together with the High-Level UN Climate Change Champion and the UAE Youth Climate Champion, the UAE will work to build consensus among parties to drive joint climate action

 The UAE will also work in COP 28 to mobilize solutions for vulnerable countries, activate losses and damages through the loss and damage Fund to help poor countries affected by climate disasters that was approved at the Sharm El-Sheikh Climate Summit (COP27), and present a conference that is as comprehensive as possible, the UAE will also seek to unite the world towards agreement on bold, practical and ambitious solutions , this will help coordinate efforts on climate action, and ensure that the world responds to the global assessment with a clear plan of action

The war between Russia and Ukraine cast a shadow on the outcomes of the Cop27 climate summit in Sharm El-Sheikh last year, and also the war between Israel and Gaza will affect badly on the next climate summit COP28, and the experts expect that the Gaza war which has entered its sixth week will probably undermine any progress at the climate summit

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